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¿Cómo funcionan los radares meteorológicos? Principios básicos
6 marzo, 2012 Meteorología

En éste post, les daré algunas definiciones para que puedan entender mejor sobre el funcionamiento de los radares que indican las precipitaciones. El radar (término derivado del acrónimo inglés radio detection and ranging, “detección y medición de distancias por radio”) es un sistema que usa ondas electromagnéticas para medir distancias, altitudes, direcciones y velocidades de objetos estáticos o móviles como aeronaves, barcos, vehículos motorizados, formaciones meteorológicas y el propio terreno. Su funcionamiento se basa en emitir un impulso de radio, que se refleja en el objetivo y se recibe típicamente en la misma posición del emisor. A partir de este “eco” se puede extraer gran cantidad de información. El uso de ondas electromagnéticas permite detectar objetos más allá del rango de otro tipo de emisiones (luz visible, sonido, etc.) Todos los radares tienen en general los mismos 4 componentes:

  1. Transmisor para generar señales de alta frecuencia
  2. Antena para enviar y recibir la señal
  3. Receptor para detectar y amplificar la señal
  4. Sistema para mostrar los resultados o productos.
En meteorología, y es el caso de Venezuela, es utilizado el radar conocido como Doppler. El radar Doppler pulsado es un sistema de radar capaz no sólo de medir el rumbo, distancia y altitud de un objeto, sino también de detectar su velocidad. Su sistema de localización se basa en emitir trenes de pulsos a una frecuencia determinada y utilizar el efecto Doppler para determinar la velocidad transversal relativa de los objetos. Este tipo de radares presentan ambigüedad en la medida de distancias por lo que no son muy útiles para labores de localización.

Fundamento físico

El radar Doppler se basa en el hecho de que objetos en los que existe movimiento con respecto al radar en la componente perpendicular a la dirección de iluminación producen una alteración en la frecuencia de la onda electromagnética cuando esta incide sobre ellos. Los objetos que se acerquen a la fuente influirán positivamente en la frecuencia del eco que produzcan y objetos que se alejen influirán negativamente en esta relación, siendo mayor la frecuencia de la onda emitida por la fuente que la del eco. La diferencia entre las frecuencias emitidas y recibidas permiten calcular la velocidad del objeto en movimiento. El cálculo de la velocidad se basa en el conocimiento previo de la frecuencia del radar, de la velocidad de la luz, del número de pulsos emitidos por segundo y de la diferencia entre la frecuencia emitida y la producida por su eco.

 f' = f.\bigg( \frac{v \pm v_{o}}{v \mp v_{s}} \bigg)

La cantidad que un radar mide es el poder de retorno que es convertido a una cantidad llamada factor de reflectividad o simplemente ¨reflectividad”. La magnitud de la reflectividad esta relacionado al número y tamaño de una gota de agua encontrada por un pulso electromagnético. Por esta razón, una alta reflectividad generalmente implica precipitaciones fuertes, mientras que una baja reflectividad implica precipitaciones ligeras.

Efecto de la curvatura terrestre

Uno debe tener presente la curvatura terrestre cuando determina la altitud de un objeto. Objetos distantes, que  están cerca al suelo, no pueden ser vistos por un radar debido a que están por  debajo del horizonte.

La altura de un objeto distante que esta por encima del horizonte será subestimada si la curvatura de la Tierra no es tomada en cuenta. Por ejemplo, la altura de el objeto en la figura de abajo podría ser subestimada como ¨h¨en vez de la altura real ¨H¨.

Podemos decir entonces que el radar se emplea para la medición y seguimiento de fenómenos atmosféricos relacionados con el agua como lluvia, granizo y nieve. Este radar permite medir y obtener información en tiempo real de: Intensidad de las precipitaciones, desarrollo y velocidad de las tormentas, dirección y velocidad del viento, bases y topes de las nubes, turbulencia y cizalladura, detección de granizo.

Imagen de Radar

Éste tipo de imagen, trae en su lado derecho la leyenda de lo que significa cada color en relación a la reflectividad del agua precipitando (dBZ). Es la imagen (la superior) que se muestra al público en la Web. El Inameh en el caso de Venezuela, cuenta para vista de sus operadores, las imágenes que ofrece el software original de los radares:
A su vez el operador podrá analizar nubosidad e intensidad de precipitaciones:
Estratocúmulos: Nube compuesta enteramente de gotitas de agua. Debido a que las gotitas son muy pequeñas (alrededor de 10-20 micrones  en diámetro), tienden a dar una señal baja.
Altoscúmulos: Esta es una nube media la cual está en niveles de congelamiento y esta compuesta por cristales de hielo y gotitas de agua superenfriadas La señal del radar es usualmente dominada por los cristales de hielo mas grande, las cuales tienden a tener varias ciento de
micrones de tamaño.
Lluvia: Frontal o estratiforme la lluvia se parece como en la figura. Cristales de hielo en la atmósfera alta que crecen y caen. En el nivel de derretimiento (2.4 km en este ejemplo) la reflectividad del radar aumenta debido a la constante dieléctrica del agua liquida que es mayor que la del hielo. 
Estratocúmulos con lloviznas: Si el estratocúmulos tiene mas de cientos de metros de grosor, entonces producirá gotas de lloviznas que pueden crecer. Esto da un gran retorno a el radar, pero usualmente se evaporara antes que alcance la superficie.
Cirros: Las nubes cirros están formadas solamente por cristales de hielo y se observan en el radar por su clásica estructura de caída.
Chaparrones: Cuando la lluvia es generada por convección la intensidad es mucho mas variable . El nivel de derretimiento es visible a 2 km en este ejemplo.
Así mismo el radar podrá suministrar las áreas de convergencia y divergencia:
En un próximo post, les enseñaré los errores de interpretación de éstas imágenes, las cuales a veces nos dan a entender precipitaciones donde no las hay o viceversa.
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